منتدى الأصدقاء أحمد محمد الصغير

مرحبا بك أخى ( أختى )الكريم * يسعدنى ويشرفنى زيارتكم *ويسعدنى تسجيلكم فى المنتدى
أخوكم فى الله
أ/ أحمد محمد الصغير
منتدى الأصدقاء أحمد محمد الصغير

إسلاميات علم ومعرفة ( فلسفة ومنطق + علم نفس وإجتماع+لغة عربية +لغة إنجليزية + لغة فرنسية +تاريخ +جغرافيا + فيزياء + كيمياء + أحياء +رياضيات + إقتصاد وإحصاء +جيولوجيا وعلوم بيئية + مستوى رفيع +أخرى )أخبار برامج ( للكمبيوتر+ النت+ تحميل برامج إسلامية )جديد

سحابة الكلمات الدلالية

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» 08102013 مُساهمة modars1 مذكرة الاستاذ احمد الشحات النصوص كاملة فى ابهى حلة (10.05 MB) اولى ثانوى المنهج المطور 2014 مذكرة الاستاذ احمد الشحات النصوص كاملة فى ابهى حلة (10.05 MB) اولى ثانوى المنهج المطور 2014
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التبادل الاعلاني


انشاء منتدى مجاني




    للصف الثالث الثانوى Hello English Unit 4

    شاطر
    avatar
    أحمد محمد الصغير أحمد
    مدير المنتدى أ/أحمد محمد الصغير أحمد

    عدد المساهمات : 296
    تاريخ التسجيل : 15/02/2012

    للصف الثالث الثانوى Hello English Unit 4

    مُساهمة  أحمد محمد الصغير أحمد في الثلاثاء أبريل 10, 2012 11:28 pm

    Hello English 1st Writers and stories 3rd Unit 4

    Vocabulary

    pioneer رائد short stories قصص قصيرة power قوة
    papers الجرائد is publish = come out تنشر education تربية
    literature الأدب culture ثقافة support تأييد - يؤيد
    writer الكاتب disabled معاق massive ضخم
    expert on خبير earthquake زلزال penname اسم مستعار
    district of منطقة ـ مقاطعة won a prize يفوز بجائزة novel رواية - جديد
    a graduate of خريج من a collection of مجموعة من poem قصيدة
    graduated from تخرج من society community مجتمع كبير believe in يؤمن
    law القانون customs عادات ـ جمرك interviewer مذيع - محاور
    lawyer المحامى habits عادات فردية متكرر university جامعة
    work for يعمل لحساب traditions التقاليد magazine مجلة
    work as يعمل كـ traditional تقليدي full of ملئ بـ
    area مساحة- منطقة development تطور excellent ممتاز
    career الحياة المهنية develop يطور affect يؤثر فى
    diplomat الدبلوماسى respect يحترم ـ احترام effect تأثير
    abroad خارج الوطن translate into يترجم journalism صحافة
    experience خبرة Russian روسي journalist صحفي
    hotel managerمدير فندق insist on يصر على sailor بحار
    confusing مشوش - مربك attachments ملحقات pay يدفع
    used to + inf اعتاد أن headache صداع village القرية
    fixed ثابت check مراجعة- يفحص deliver يسلم ـ يوصل
    break يكسر - راحة قصيرة publisher الناشر delivery توصيل
    biography السيرة الذاتية product ج/production ينتج summary موجز - ملخص
    average of المتوسط production إنتاج reports تقارير
    old-fashioned موضة قديمة behavior سلوك competition منافسة
    fashionable مطابق للزى الحديث على الموضة behave يتصرف retired متقاعد
    stylish على الموضة - أنيق heart transplant عملية وزراعة قلب European أوروبي
    style طريقة- أسلوب surgeon الطبيب الجراح cut down يقلل
    routine روتين يومي playwright كاتب مسرحى the poor الفقراء
    enforce the law يُطبق أو ينفذ القانون human resources الموارد البشرية enter a competition يدخل مسابقة
    widen horizons يوسع الآفاق eliminate illiteracy يمحو الأمية social justice العدالة الاجتماعية

    Reading

    YEHIA HAQQI
    YEHIA HAQQI was one of the pioneers of modern Egyptian Literature . As well as being an important writer , he was an expert on Arab culture.YEHIA HAQQI was born in 1905 in Sayyida Zeinab district of Cairo. He graduated in law and worked for a short time as a lawyer. In 1929 , he began his career as a diplomat and he worked abroad for more than 20 years . The time he spent in France , Italy , Turkey and Libya gave him experiences he later used in his writing.
    At the same time as he was working , Haqqi was also writing stories. His first short story , published (came out) in 1925, established him as one of the great short story writers of the Arab world.
    Haqqi always wanted to help poor and disabled people. He had to go to hospital after an earthquake in Cairo , but he gave his bed to a poor person who he thought needed it more. In 1955 , he wrote a collection of short stories about the poor and the disabled which won an important prize . Another of his stories , the postman , was made into a film. Haqqi wrote in a new way about Arab society and customs in the twentieth century .Haqqi was also interested in the Arabic language and he developed a new style of writing which is respected today.
    As well as writing his own novels and stories , Haqqi also translated Russian , French , Italian and Turkish literature into Arabic He was a very strong believer in the power of education and supported many young Egyptian writers. Haqqi died in 1992, but is still thought of as the father of the modern short story and the novel in Egypt.

    Language Notes

    biography autobiography
    biography  سيـرة ذاتيـة لشخـص يكتبهـا شخـص آخـر
    Famous people have different biographies written about them.
    autobiography  سيـرة ذاتيـة لشخـص يكتبهـا الشخـص نفسـه
    He published his autobiography last year.

    win beat gain earn
    win  يفـوز ــ يكسب ( كأس ـ مبـاراة ـ انتخابات )
    Egypt will win the cup I hope.
    beat  يهـزم ـ يتغـلب على ( شخـص أو فـريق )
    America could beat Sadam.
    gain  يكتسب ـــ يحصل على شىء معنوى مفيد ( خبـرة ـ معـرفة معلـومات ـ شهرة )
    You gained a lot of information from the conference .
     وتشير إلى زيادة فى الوزن ـ السرعة ـ الكمية
    Ali gained 3 kilos in weight in the last month. The plane gained speed to take off .
    earn  يكسب ( قوت أو رزق ) مقابل عمل
    People work hard to earn money. He works hard to earn his living .

    retire resign
    retire  يحـال للمعـاش ( يتقـاعـد )
    When the employee is 60, he retires and can live on his pension.
    resign  ) يستقيـل من العمـل )
    Mr Ahmed resigned his position last week.

    habit custom tradition
    habit  عـادة شخـص
    Listening to loud music is a bad habit.
    custom  عـادة شعب
    Celebrating Sham El- Nasim is an Egyptian custom.
    tradition  شـئ مـوروث
    She wrote under a pen name because of the traditions she was brought up in.

    award reward present a ward prize
    award  يمنـح ـ منحـة ـ جائـزة ( مقابـل عمـل شـئ بإجادة (
    She was awarded her PHD in 1985. He won the academy award this year.
    reward  يكافـئ ـ مكـافـأة ( مقابـل سلـوك حسـن أو عمـل جيـد ) أو تقديـم خدمـة للمجتمع
    He used to give us pens as a reward when we were good.
    present = gift  هدية بدون مقابل
    My uncle gave me a present on my birthday party.
    a ward  جناح ـ عنبر فى مستشفى
    Take this patient to a ward No. Four.
    prize  جائزة ( نقدية أو رحلة مثلا ) تمنح لشخص نجح في عمل شيء
    She got the first prize in the race.

    politician diplomat
    politician  رجل السياسة
    Yesterday's interview was a debate between two politicians.
    diplomat  دبلوماسي ( في سفارة أو في وزارة الخارجية )
    Ahmed works as a diplomat in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    on board broad abroad
    on board  على متن ( سفينة ـ طائرة ...... (
    I climbed on board of the ship.
    broad  عريض
    Ali has broad shoulders.
    abroad  الخارج
    My uncle travelled abroad.

    graduate
    graduate from  يتخـرج مـن
    He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine.
    a graduate of  خـريـج
    He is a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine.
    graduate with a degree in  يتخـرج بشهـادة فـى
    He graduated with a degree in history.

    publish spread prevail
    publish  يعلن ـ ينشر ( كتاب (
    He works for a company that publishes reference books.
    spread  ينشر ـ ينتشر
    Terrorism spreads panic among all classes of society.
    prevail  يسود ـ يعم
    Justice will prevail over tyranny.


    disabled retarded backward
    disabled  ذو إعاقـة جسـدية
    We take disabled children on trips at the weekends.
    retarded  ذو إعاقـة عقليـة
    Retarded children go to special school where they get special care.
    backward  متخلف عن النمـو الطبيعى ( شخـص ـ دولة )
    backward children need to learn more slowly than others.
    The UN helps backward countries.

    work job career profession
    work  عمـل ـ مكـان العمـل ( اسم لا يعـد )
    I have got a lot of work to do. Mr Ahmed leaves work at two o'clock.
    job  وظيفة ـ مهنـه ( اسم يعـد (
    He has got a job as a teacher. I have got a lot of jobs to do.
    career  مهنـه الحياة العملية للفـرد
    He started his career five years ago.
    profession  مهنـه ( تحتـاج إلى مؤهـلات وتـدريـب (
    Teaching is a profession.

    experience experiences experiment
    experience  الخبرة (ما يكتسبه الشخص من معرفة ومهارات من خلال عمل معين – لا تُجمع)
    They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience.
    experiences  مواقف أو تجارب أو خبرات في الحياة
    I had some interesting experiences while I was travelling. (= things that happened to me)
    experiment  تجربة علمية لإثبات صحة شيء ما أو التوصل لنتائج معينة
    Teachers usually carry out simple experiments in the laboratory.

    routine red tape
    routine  روتين شخصي ( عمل نفس الشئ في نفس الوقت كل يوم )
    My daily routine is to go to the club.
    red tape  روتين حكومي ) تعقيدات حكومية (
    I had a lot of red tape to get my passport.

    Week second month year minute hour day
     لاحظ عدم جمع الكلمات الآتية إذا جاء قبلها عدد وبعدها اسم:
    I usually have a ten-minute break for coffee at midday.
    a five-hour meeting a three-day trip
     ولكننا نقول:
    The trip took three days. The meeting lasted for five hours.
     في حالة وجود كلمة time بعد الكلمات السابقة نستخدم 's)) في حالة المفرد و (s') في حالة الجمع:
    in a week's time in two years' time

    mend amend
    mend  يقوم بإصلاح (شيء تالف أو لا يعمل)
    The plumber came to mend the burst pipe.
    amend  يقوم بإجراء تعديل أو تغيير في نص أو قانون
    The constitution الدستور was amended some time ago.

    other than rather than otherwise
    other than = except  ما عدا
    The form cannot be signed by anyone other than yourself.
    rather than = in preference to / instead of  بدلا من ـ مفضلا شيء علي آخر
    I think I'd like to stay at home this evening rather than go out.
    otherwise = except  وإلا
    You'll have to go now, otherwise you'll miss your bus.

    Expressions

    a ten-minute break راحة لمدة عشر دقائق established himself as رسّخ / جعل لنفسه مكانة
    father of the modern short story رائد القصة القصيرة الحديثة make into a film قصة تتحول إلى فيلم
    write an article on يكتب مقالة عن exchange with يتبادل مع
    at a time فى وقت ما at the age of فى سن
    take part in يشارك فى as a sign of respect كدليل احترام
    take place يحدث successful at ناجح فى
    refer to يشير إلى capable of + v. + ing قادر على
    struggle for يناضل من أجل bring up يربى
    win a prize for يفوز بجائزة لــ in charge of مسئول عن
    write for يكتب من أجل responsible for مسئول عن
    full of مملوء بــ ask for يطلب
    fill---- with يملأ بــ change into يتحول إلى
    be filled with مملوء بــ expert ( on- in- at ) خبير فى
    average of متوسط لــ work as يعمل كــ
    excited about سعيد جدا بـــ on board على متن السفينة-الطائرة
    persist in مصر على collection of مجموعة من
    insist on مصر على be made into تتحول على
    thought of as فكر فيها كـ come out = publish ينشر ـ يوزع
    provide a model for يقدم نموذج أو قدوة لـ be typical of له نفس صفات أو مزايا كذا
    tolerant of / towards متسامح تجاه empathic مشارك للآخرين في معاناتهم ومشاعرهم
    adjust to يتكيف أو يتأقلم علي at midday في منتصف اليوم

    Exercise
    Choose the correct answer:
    1. Early black and white photos show people in ………………. clothes.
    ( new – old-fashioned – modern )
    2. The sun is at its strongest at …………………. .
    ( night - evening - morning – midday )
    3. My ……………… is to get up and walk.
    ( routine - red tape – customs - traditions )
    4. My friend and I are going to enter an athletics ……………….. .
    ( competition – composition– recognition )
    5. Professor Jones gave Ayman a camera and all its ……………………….. .
    ( attacks – attachments – mails – letters )
    6. Leila sent an e-mail to Samira and ……………….. an image.
    ( attended – attacked – attracted – attached)
    7. Al –Ahram Weekly,…………………. my article.
    ( wrote – translated – published – did )
    8. Midday is 12 o'clock in the day, but midnight is 12 o'clock at ……………………… .
    ( night – noon – day – knight )
    9. It is not ………………….. , it is old-fashioned.
    ( modern - ancient – dirty - clean)
    10. To ……………………. means to make a new product or idea successful.
    ( divide - develop - retire - recite)
    11. – Al Sydia Zainab is a famous ……………………….. of Cairo.
    ( restrict – governorate – system – district )
    12. Naguib Mahfouz used simple ……………….. in his novels.
    ( style – draft – styles – symbol )
    13. Hassna is a ………………………… girl.
    ( fashion – fashioned – fascism – fashionable )
    14. Yehia Haqqi studied ………………… at university to be a lawyer.
    ( low - law - medicine - art )
    15. Haqqi worked as a ………………. in different countries.
    ( ambassador – diplomat – writer – translator )
    16. Yehia Haqqi wrote a ……………………… of short stories.
    ( group – school – pack – collection )
    17. Haqqi spent most of his time as a ……………………… in Assuit.
    ( lawyer – politician – writer – diplomat )
    18. As well as ………………. two books , he wrote short stories.
    ( write – wrote – writing – writes )
    19. He is an expert …………………. Arab culture.
    ( with - at - on - by )
    20. His story, the post man , was …………………. into a film.
    ( make – made – makes – making )
    21. This shop sells goods at ……………………… prices.
    ( limited – fix – fixed – fox )
    22. She is a graduate ……………… Oxford University.
    ( in - of – from – at )
    23. He is a publisher his work is to ----------------- stories and novels.
    ( write – translate – publish – public )
    24. Al Gamalya is a famous ----------------- of Cairo.
    ( restrict – governorate – system – district )

    25. I really enjoyed that book , it is written in a very simple ------------
    ( style – road – draft – styles )
    26. my sister loves clothes and buys ------------ dresses.
    ( very old – traditional – fashionable – old-fashioned )
    27. He won a prize for one of the --------------- of his short stories.
    ( pack – school – collect – collection )
    28. He worked -------------- for more than 20 years.
    ( aboard – above – abroad – ashore )
    29. He has a ---------------- routine in writing.
    ( fixed – fixing – fax – mix )
    30. As -------------------------- as I am concerned , this is an interesting book.
    ( long – soon – tall – far )
    31. He worked -------------------------- for more than 20 years.
    ( aboard – above – abroad – ashore)
    32. He cannot work because of his …………………….. .
    (ability – facility – flexibility - disability)
    33. A …………….. is one of the first people to do something that others will continue.
    (biologist – beginner – pioneer - bystander)
    34. All people must ………………. the law.
    (obey – break – destroy – damage)
    35. Some people believe that ……………… on animals should be banned.
    (experiments – experience – experiences – examples)
    36. There was nobody in the house ……………………….. Ali.
    (rather than – other than – otherwise – other)
    37. I had several bad ……………… during my last trip.
    (experiences – experience – experiments – extensions)
    38. I haven't had a steady ……………. since last March.
    (career – job – work – profession)
    39. Which team do you …………………?
    ( export – import – support – report )
    40. He is regarded as one of the …………….. of modern science.
    ( heads – bosses - supervisors – pioneers )

    Find the mistakes and write the sentences correctly:
    1- The children watched ourselves on video.
    2- Please make you at home.
    3- She helped me doing the job.
    4- Egypt sent a trade allegation to the conference.
    5- Policemen usually wear a platform.
    6- He had a kidney transport last year.
    7- The normal requirement age in Egypt is 60.
    8- She is interested on reading newspapers.
    9- A carpenter represents one country in another.
    10- This designer always comes up with new ideas. He is very imaginary.

    A) Translate into Arabic:
    It can’t be denied that nature is beautiful. When nature is angry, it becomes man’s enemy. There are things such as volcanoes, earthquakes, floods and storms which cause great damage.

    B) Translate into English :
     لقد كتب نجيب محفوظ الكثير من الروايات التي ترجمت إلى لغات عديدة .

    Grammar

    Past Tenses: Active & Passive

    Past simple الماضي البسيـط

     الماضي البسيـط :ـ هـو التصـريــف الثاني للفعـل بإضـافـة ( d - ed - ied) للفعـل مـا عـدا الأفعـال الشـاذة .
    I visited my uncle last week. She played football yesterday.
     إذا انتهـى الفعــل بحـــرف ساكـن مسبــوق بحــرف متحــرك يضـاعـف الحــرف الساكــن .
    travel travelled stop stopped
     يستخـدم في الجمـلة الشـرطـيـة في الحـالـة الثـانيـة مـن قـاعـدة If .
    If he played well, he would win the match.
     يستخـدم مـع wish ليـدل علـى أن الأمنيــة أو الافتـراض غيـــر حقيقي .
    I wish I were a doctor.

    used to + inf
    used to + inf  اعتاد أن ( فعــل ) ( يعبر عن عادة كانت تحدث فى الماضي ولم تعد تحدث الآن )
    I used to play football when I was young.
    He used to be a driver, but now he isn’t.
    didn't use to + inf  في النفي نستخـدم
    I didn't use to play football when I was young.
    He didn't use to be fat but now he is.
    Did +فاعل + use to + inf  وفي الاستفهام نستخـدم
    Did she use to cry a lot when she was a baby?
     تستخدم no longer بدلا مـن used to ويأتي بعدها الفعل في المضارع البسيط المثبت.
    He used to live here. ( no longer )
    He no longer lives here.
     تستخدم any more ـany longer بدلا من used to مع نفى الفعل في المضارع البسيط و تأتى في نهاية الجملة.
    He used to live here. (any more)

    He doesn’t live here any more.

     الكلمــات الدالــة عليـــه :ـ
    yesterday أمس in the past في الماضي last + زمنية مدة الماضي
    ago منذ ـ فيما مضى in ancient times في العصور القديمة
    once ذات مرة one day في يوم ما
    Last week He gave a party. I visited my uncle a week ago.

     يستخدم مع التعبيرات الآتية ويعتبر ماضي غير حقيقي
    I wish + فاعل + ماضي بسيط
    It's time + فاعل + ماضي بسيط
    I would rather + فاعل + ماضي بسيط
    I wish Ali played well.
    It's time he arrived.
    I would rather she helped him.

     الماضى البسيط فى المبنى للمجهول :ـ
    ( was – were ) + pp
    Active : She cleaned the room.

    Passive : The room was cleaned by her.

     نفى الماضي البسيــط :ـ عنـد نفـى الماضي البسيـط نستخــدم ) المصــدر didn’t + ).
    I finished my work. She won the cup yesterday.
    I didn’t finish my work. She didn't win the cup yesterday.

    الأفعـــال الشـــاذة
     أفعـال تصـريفاتهـا الثـلاثـة واحـدة مثـل :
    put put put
    cut cut cut
    shut shut shut
    hit hit hit
    let let let
    read read read
     أفعـال ذات تغيـر واحـد مثـل :
    buy bought bought
    catch caught caught
    bring brought brought
    build built built
    sleep slept slept
    meet met met
    hear heard heard
     أفعـال تصـريفاتهـا الثـلاثـة مختـلفــة مثـل :
    eat ate eaten
    drink drank drunk
    swim swam swum
    fall fell fallen
    write wrote written
    draw drew drawn
    speak spoke spoken

    Past Continuous الماضي المستمـر

     يتكـون مـن was – were + ( v + ing )
    I was playing football . They were playing tennis.

     الكلمـات الـدالـة عليـه :ـ
    past simple حـدث مستمر وقطعه حدث آخـر past continuous
    As – While
    past continuous
    past simple When
    While I was watching TV, the light went out . ( When )
    When the light went out I was watching TV .

    While + ( v + ing ) past simple إذا لـم يوجــد فاعـــل
    While I was running to catch the train I lost my money .
    While running to catch the train I lost my money .

     ملحوظـة :ـ يكـون زمني الجملـة ماضي مستمـر إذا لم يقطـع أحـدهمـا الآخــر.
    While mother was cooking, father was reading a story . ( During )
    During + ( v+ing )

     تسـتخـدم بـدلا مـن ( while ) .
    During mother's cooking, father was reading a story .
    While father was reading the paper, mother was cooking.

     يمكن أن يكون الحدثين مع when في الماضي البسيط :
    When he arrived , he found the door locked.
     يمكن استخدام On بدلا من when و يأتي يعدها . ( V + ing )
    When he arrived , he found the door locked. (On …)
    On arriving, he found the door locked.
     الفعل بعد and يأخذ نفس شكل الفعل الذي يسبقها:
    He was writing a letter and listening to some music.
    She has finished work and gone home.
     لاحظ عدم استخدام to Be في الماضي المستمر:
    While I was at school, I worked to a plan.

     الماضى المستمر فى المبنى للمجهول :ـ
    ( was – were ) + being + pp
    Active : The gardener was picking the flowers.
    Passive : The flowers were being picked by the gardener.
    Active : He was reading the story when they arrived.

    Passive : The story was being read when they arrived.

    Present Perfect المضـــارع التـام

     المضـارع التـام :ـ هـو فعــل حــدث في الماضي ومـازال له أثــر أو نتيجـة تـدل عليـه ويتكـون مـن :
    haveـ has + pp
    She has cooked lunch I have studied English.
    We have done out homework. They have mended their car.

     الكلمـات الدالـة عليـه :ـ
    just توا ـ حالا already بالفعل ever دوما since منذ
    so far حتى الآن yet بعد never أبدا for لمدة

    lately حديثا recently حديثا up till now حتى الآن
     و يستخدم إذا بدأت الجملة بمـا يلـي :
    It’s ( This ) is the only… It’s - This is the first ( second…) time..
    In recent years In the last few years - months
    over the ages - over the years - over the centuries علي مر العصور ـ السنين ـ القرون
    They haven't won the prize so far. He has just arrived.
    We have already bought a new car. She has already finished work.
    She just ( leave ) the house. ( Correct )
    She has just left the house. ( Negative )

     تنـفـى just - already بـ not -- -- -- yet مـع حـذفهمـا .
    She hasn't left the house yet.


    just = a moment ago = a short time ago
    He has just arrived. ( a moment ago )
    I arrived a moment ago.
    I ever ( meet ) my friends. ( Correct )
    I have ever met my friends. ( Negative )
     تنـفـى ever بـ never مــع حـذفهــا .
    I have never met my friends.

    recently lately
     تستخـدمـان بمعنى في الماضي القريـب وغـالبـا تستخـدم lately في النفي .
    I have been to Cairo recently. I haven't met him lately.
    Have you gone to Luxor lately / recently ?
    have been ذهـب وعـاد have gone ذهـب ولم يعـد
    He has been to London . ( He is here now )
    He has gone to London . ( He is there now )

    Since & For
    Since 12 o’clock For two hours
    October four months
    7th august three weeks
    2000 8 years
    he arrived ages
    then a long time
    last ……………... the last …………..

    For بعــدهـا مـده زمنيـه كـامـلة ( محددة )
    I have played for two hours. She has studied for five hours.
     لاحــظ : استخــدام for في هـذه الجمـلة لوجــود the قبــل المـدة الزمنيــة .
    I have studied English for the last week.

    Since بعـدهـا بدايـة مـده زمنيـة ( غيـر محـددة )
    He has travelled since 1995. He has learned to drive since last month.
     كما تستخـدم since كـأداة ربــط .
    مضـارع تـام since ماضي بسيــط
    I have played football since I was seven.
    She has studied English since she finished secondary school.

    Last - The last time - ago + past simple
     عند استخدام ( since – for ) بدلا من الكلمات السابقة نستخدم مضارع تام منفى:
    I last had my hair cut when I was in Cairo. ( since )
    = I haven’t had my hair cut since I was in Cairo.
    The last time I played chess was six years ago. ( since - for )
    = I haven’t played chess since 2003.
    = I haven’t played chess for six years.
    = I haven't played chess since six years ago.
    I last met Ahmed when we were at school. ( since )
    I haven't met Ahmed since we were at school.
    The last time I played football was in 2000. ( since )
    I haven't played football since 2000.

     ملحوظـة :ـ عنــد استخـدام for بــدلا مـن since والعكــس نتبـع الآتي .
    I have taught English since 1992. ( for )
    I have taught English for 13 years.
    She has travelled for ten years. ( since )
    She has travelled since 1995.
    I haven't visited my friend for a long time. ( since )


     ملحوظـة :ـ عنــد استخـدام since بــدلا مـن for مـع وجـود مـدة زمنية غيـر معـلومة نستخـدم :ـ
    It is + فتـرة زمنية + since + ماضى بسيـط

    It is a long time since I visited my friend.
    I haven't met him for ten years. ( It's )
    It's ten years since I met him.
     ملحوظـة :ـ عنـد استخــدام ago بــدلا مــن since – for نستخــدم .
    started – began + ( to + inf ) or ( v + ing(
    She has learnt English for seven years. ( ago )
    She began to learn ( learning ) English seven years ago.
     لاحظ :ـ عند استخدام ever بدلا من never نستخدم صيغة تفضيل:
    I have never done such a tiring job. ( This is…)
    = This is the most tiring job I have ever done.

     لاحـظ :ـ عند استخدام never بدلا من ever نستخدم such (a - an) ( adj + N ).
    This is the worst luck I have ever had. ( never )
    = I have never had such bad luck.
     لاحـظ :ـ استخدام yet في الجملة المنفيــة
    I haven’t finished my homework yet.
     في حالة استخدام yet بدلا من still نستخدم مضارع تام منفى بدلا من المضارع المستمر:
    He is still writing the report. ( yet )
    He hasn’t finished writing the report yet.

     المضارع التـام فى المبنى للمجهول :ـ
    ( have – has ) + been + pp
    Active : He has written the letter.
    Passive : The letter has been written.

    Active : We have built a new house.
    Passive : A new house has been built by us.

    Past perfect الماضي التـام

     الماضي التـام :ـ هـو فعــل حدث واكتمـل في الماضي ويتكـون من :
    had + pp

    She had cooked lunch
    I had studied English .
    She had won the cup.
    He had finished work.


     الكلمـات الـدالـة عليـه :ـ
    After بعد when عندما by في وقت
    before قبل as soon as بمجرد أن no sooner.. than لم يكد ... حتى
    till - until حتى the moment فى لحظة أن

    After ماضي تـام ماضي بسـيـط
    After I had done my homework, I watched TV .
     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ـ
    After (اسـم ) or ( v + ing ) ماضي بسـيـط
    Having pp التصريـف الثالث ماضي بسـيـط


    After doing my homework, I watched TV . ( Having )
    Having done my homework, I watched TV .
    First he played, then he washed . ( After )
    After he had played, he washed . ( Having )
    Having played, he washed .

    ماضي تــام before ماضي بسـيـط
    I did my homework I went to bed . ( before )
    I had done my homework before I went to bed .

    Before I went to bed, I had done my homework .
     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ــ
    or ( v + ing ) ( اسـم ) before ماضي تــام

    I had done my homework before going to bed .
    Before going to bed, I had done my homework

    ماضي بسيط غالبا منفى till – until ماضي تــام
    I went to bed. I did my homework . ( until )
    I didn't go to bed till ( until ) I had done my homework . ( It was only )
    It was only when ماضي تــام ماضي بسيـط

    It was only when I had done my homework, I went to bed.

     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ـ
    ماضي بسيط غالبا منفى till – until (اسـم ) or ( v + ing )
    I didn't go to bed till ( until ) doing my homework .

    As soon as ماضي تــام ماضي بسيـط
    I went out. I met my friend. ( As soon as )
    As soon as I had gone out, I met my friend . ( Immediately )
     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ـ
    ماضي بسيـط ) or ( v + ing ( اسـم ) Immediately on
    Immediately on going out, I met my friend .

    When ماضي تـام ماضي بسيــط
    I had finished work. I left the office. ( When )
    When I had finished work, I left the office. ( On
     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ـ
    ماضي بسيــط ) or ( v + ing ( اسـم ) On
    On finishing work, I left the office.

    The moment ماضي تـام ماضي بسيــط
    I had finished work. I left the office. ( The moment )
    The moment I had finished work, I left the office.


    By ماضي بسـيـط ماضي تــام
    By فتـرة زمنيـة ماضي تــام
    I arrived the cinema. the film had started . ( By )
    By the time I arrived the cinema , the film had started .

    By the year 1990, I had learnt English .

    No sooner than
    Scarcely
    ماضي تـــام when
    ماضي بسـيــط

    Hardly when
    Only just when
     هـذه الكلمـات لـهـا طـريقتـان في الربـط :ـ
    1) في أول الجمــلة تكـون على صيغـة استفهـام . 2) بعـد الفاعل تكـون الجمـلة خبريـة .
    He arrived at the station . The train left . ( No sooner )
    No sooner had he arrived at the station than the train left .
    He had no sooner arrived at the station than the train left . ( Immediately )
     هـذه الجمـلة Complex وعنـد تحـويلهــا إلى Simple نستخـدم :ـ
    Immediately after اسـم )) or ( v + ing ( مـاضى بسيـط
    Immediately after his arrival at the station, the train left.

     الماضى التام فى المبنى للمجهول :ـ
    had been + pp
    Active : The teacher had explained the lesson.
    Passive : The lesson had been explained by the teacher.
    Active : Ahmed had done homework.

    Passive : Homework had been done by Ahmed.

    Exercise
    Find the mistakes and write the sentences correctly :
    1. Twenty million people see the match yesterday.
    2. My parents use to live in a small flat .
    3. We revised for our test when the light went out.
    4. She played the piano since the age of six.
    5. Our block built five years ago.
    6. It's time he comes to school.
    7. Hala had not seen the film last week.
    8. While was reading , the light turned off. .
    9. No sooner he had reached the station than the train left..
    10. English had learned by Ali.
    11. His novel changed into a film.
    12. The letter was posted after it had written.
    13. After play the game , he washed.
    14. Did you used to smoke when you were young?
    15. Have you never visited the valley of kings?
    16. While the match , he was injured.
    17. Having wake up , he switched on TV.
    18. My son born in 2004.
    19. My brother will go to Paris, he came back last week.
    20. As he was carrying the vase, he had dropped it on the floor.
    21. The washing machine delivers while I was reading the newspaper.
    22. I am used to reading at least one book a week, but now I don't read so many.
    23. While I come to school today, I saw an old friend.
    24. At six o'clock yesterday evening, I am watching TV.
    25. Five years ago, I am used to ride a bicycle.
    26. I used reading the newspaper every day. Now I don't have the time.
    27. As soon as we arrived at school, the first lesson begins.
    28. What did you do when I called you? You sounded very busy.
    29. I had my own computer for 3 years now.
    30. While my sister does her homework, she was listening to music.
    31. All the students in my class pass the exam already.
    32. My parents use to live in a small flat in the city centre.
    33. Yesterday evening, we revised for our English test when all the lights went out.
    34. I attend this school for five years.
    35. Our school was opening exactly 25 years ago today.
    36. She played the piano since the age of six and she still plays every day.
    37. Our block of flats build five years ago.
    38. Five trees cutting down a week ago.
    39. Yesterday evening, the programme to watch by a million people.
    40. The room clean when the earthquake happened.
    ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
    Test 4
    A- Language Functions
    1) Respond to the following situations:
    1. You're asked to open the window because it's hot and you agree.
    2. You're asked about the longest river in the world.
    3. Samy asks you about your favourite writer.
    4. Hassan asks you about the age of the pyramids.
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    2) Supply where these situations take place and who the speakers are:

    1- A : Your ticket, please.
    B : Here your are.
    A : Seat F4.
    B : Thank you, What time does it start?
    A : At 10.00.

    2- A : You have to pay a fine.
    B : Why, sir ?
    A : You exceeded the limited speed.
    ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
    B- Vocabulary and Structure
    3) Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
    1. I really enjoyed this book. It is written in a very simple ………………… .
    a-direction b- establishment c- style d- location
    2. He wouldn't try to mislead you. It's not his ……………………. .
    a- style b- case c- condition d- circumstance
    3. Many doctors want to see a law …………….. all tobacco advertising.
    a- allowing b- welcoming c- banning d- rewarding
    4. His first short story ………….. him as one of the great short story writers of the Arab world.
    a- appointed b- posted c- allowed d- established
    5. In my country, it's the ……………. for women to get married in white.
    a- law b- custom c- rule d- regulation
    6. I'm looking for a job which will enable me to ……………….. my skills.
    a- develop b- depend c- replace d- deplete
    7. There's no fixed ……………….. at work – every day is different.
    a- career b- profession c- routine d- position
    8. His collection of short stories …………….. an important prize.
    a- beat b- gained c- earned d- won
    9. He hasn't studied English -------------------------
    a- recently b- lately c- ago d- just
    10. Since I graduated, I ---------------------- in this company.
    a- worked b- had worked c- will work d- have been working
    11. I last ------------------- my friend was last week.
    a- see b- saw c- has seen d- have seen
    12. It is ages since we ------------------------- some good news.
    a- have heard b- had heard c- heard d- was hearing
    13. Have you done your homework ----------------------? That is too fast.
    a- yet b- so far c- since d- already
    14. ----------------------- I was out shopping, I saw three of my friends.
    a- Because b- While c- If d- Although
    15. The first map----------------------- by El_idrissi .
    a- was drawn b-drew c- is drawn d- draws
    16. He hasen't written a letter since I --------------- to England.
    a– travelled b -will travel c- have travelled d- travel
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    4) Find the mistakes and write the sentences correctly:
    1. He wrote two collisions of short stories.
    2. Yehia Haqqi developed a new steel of writing which is respected today.
    3. He is going to enter a reading commission and he is hoping to win it.
    4. Before he left the country, he has paid all his debts.
    5. While he is being in London, he went shopping.
    6. She doesn't receive the prize yet.
    ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
    (C) Reading Comprehension and Set Books
    5) Read the following passage then answer the questions:
    One day, I was standing outside an underground station in London waiting for a friend, when I saw two men . One was sitting on the pavement. His clothes were old and dirty and had a hat in front of him. As people passed by , he said, “ Can you give me some change, please ? “ A few people tossed some coins into the hat but mist people ignored him .
    The other man was wearing a suit and holding a plastic petrol can . He stopped people and told them his car had run out of petrol and he had forgotten his wallet. He asked them to lend him some money for petrol. Most people happily gave him money. Some gave him coins, but most gave him notes. I watched him for ten minutes . In that time he collected a lot of money. He put it in his pocket, but he did no go to the petrol station. It became clear to me that both men were beggars. The one in the dirty clothes needed money more than one in the suit. But the one in the suit was much more successful . Isn’t that strange ?

    A) Answer the following questions :
    1- Why was the writer standing outside the station ?
    2- Which man collected the most money ?
    3- Did the man in the suit really have a car which had run out of petrol ?
    4- What does the pronoun “ it “ in bold refer to ?

    B) Choose the correct answer :
    5- “ Most people ignored him “ means people ----------------------------
    a) shouted at him b) refused to give any money
    c) walked past without looking at him d) moved quickly
    6- People ----------------- the second man’s story .
    a) didn’t believe b) believed c) doubted d) knew
    7- The man in the suit asked people to ------------------ him money .
    a) take b) borrow c) spend d) lend
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    6) Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
    We may know there's a scientific explanation for solar eclipses, but they continue to exert an almost magical power over us. It's not at all clear we've decreased in gullibility سهولة الانخداع since the days when Columbus used his fore-knowledge of an eclipse to hoodwink يغش the Jamaicans. And even though we know better, during each total solar eclipse, there will be people blinded by the too tempting sight of an eclipsed sun.
    On the other hand, we don't beat drums, fire arrows into the sky, and stand up to our necks in water in an effort to appease يهدئ the gods as did the ancient Chinese and Indians. Both the Chinese and the Indians thought a snake attacked the sun during an eclipse. Noise making was an effort to scare the creature away. The earliest recorded eclipse was in China on October 22, 2134 BC. Then two court astrologers lost their heads because, since they had failed to predict it, the emperor had been caught unprepared to make the necessary dragon-scaring noise. Almost a millennium later, in the fourteenth century B.C., an eclipse was described by a Chinese seer as three flames eating the sun.
    Eclipses have been seen as evil omens whose presence changed the course of battle. In the eclipse of 585 B.C, the one Thales is said to have predicted -- five years of fighting ended between the Medes and Lydians as a result of an eclipse.
    The Babylonians were the first to calculate the regular intervals at which eclipses occur. It was through contact with the East that Thales of Miletus was able to make the prediction that marked the beginning of the Greek scientific era. Thales predicted a total solar eclipse in the midst of the battle between Media and Lydia. While there is some doubt as to whether Thales accurately predicted the eclipse because he didn't fully understand all the cycles necessary to calculate the date, he is credited with predicting the May 25, 585 B.C. eclipse.

    A. Answer the following questions:
    1- What happens to people who watch a solar eclipse?
    2- What did the ancient Chinese and Indians do to appease the gods?
    3- Why is there some doubt as to whether Thales accurately predicted the eclipse?
    4- What prediction did Thales make that marked the beginning of the Greek scientific era?

    B- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
    5- The Chinese and the Indians thought a ………………… during an eclipse.
    a) a snake attacked the sun b) a dragon attacked the sun
    c) three flames ate the sun d) two astrologers were killed
    6- The Chinese emperor kill the two court astrologers because………………..
    a) they could predict the eclipse b) they couldn’t predict the eclipse
    c) they made scaring noise d) they scared the dragon
    7- In the fourteenth century B.C., a Chinese seer described the eclipse as …….…
    a) a dragon eating the sun b) a snake eating the sun
    c) three flames eating the sun d) a battle between Media and Lydia
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    D- The Novel
    7) (A) Answer the following questions:
    1- What does Leila think of the UNESCO exchange programme? Why?
    2- Why didn’t Leila study archaeology with Dr Hafez in Cairo?
    3- When did the Customs at Lima Airport let Leila through with the laser machine?

    B) Read the following quotation and answer the questions:
    “I didn't want to tell him exactly where Dr Hafez's excavations were taking place”
    1- Who said these words, to whom and where?
    2- What made the speaker doubt the addressed person?
    3- Where were Dr Hafez’s excavations taking place?

    C) Complete the following sentences:
    1- Leila had to take a connecting flight to Lima because …………………………
    2- People think that Dr Hafez is giving Leila a special treatment………………….
    3- Before she came to Peru, Leila had worked with Dr Hafez in …………………
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    E- Writing
    Cool Write a paragraph of seven (7) sentences about:

    " Famous writers in Egypt "
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    F- Translation
    9) A- Translate into Arabic:
    Some Egyptian writers have written books and articles advocating the rights of women . They have called for women's equality with men. Now women have the same rights as men and even hold important positions in the society.

    B)Translate into English:
     تملك مصر العديد من الرواد في الأدب العربي مثل يحي حقي ، طه حسين وكذلك نجيب محفوظ .
     يعتقد كثير من الناس أن الكتـاب الإلكتروني سيحل محل الكتاب العادي في المستقبل القريب .


      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت سبتمبر 23, 2017 11:07 am